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Chinesische Hölzer

3 Januar 2010 36.739 views No Comment

Buchsbaum
Huangyang
Buxus L.

BuchsBuchsbaum ist ein kleiner Baum oder Strauch. Aufgrund seiner geringen Größe wird sein Holz nur selten für größere Möbel verwendet, sondern meinst nur für kleine Schnitzarbeiten oder für dekorative Intarsien verwendet. Sein Holz ist sehr haltbar und hat eine große Dichte. Aufgrund seiner feinen Textur eignet es sich hervorragend für Schnitzarbeiten.

In China gibt es zahlreiche Varianten. Bekannt sind die Hochwertige Qualität stammt aus Hubei, Jiangxi und Sichuan. Der Baum wächst sehr langsam. Einige Varianten haben nach 100 Jahren einen Stammdurchmesser von nur 10-15 cm. In den Wälnder von Laoshan in Shandong wachsen Buchsbäume mit einem Durchmesser von bis zu 30 cm.

Splintholz und Kernholz lassen sich beim Buchsbaum nicht unterscheiden. Die blassgelbe Farbe des frisch geschnittenen Holzes wird an der Luft zu einem warmen Braungelb. Die Maserung verläuft meist sehr gerade. Der Stamm läßt sich schwer trocknen und reißt leicht. Frisch verarbeiteter Buchsbaum hat einen erdigen Geruch. Aufgrund der feinen Zellstruktur ist die Oberfläche sehr weich und glatt und entwickelt einen seidigen Glanz.

Nördliche Ulme
Yumu
(Northern Elm) Ulmus L.

Nördliche UlmeNördliche UlmeDie Nördliche Ulme ist der am häufigsten in der Möbelherstellung verwendete Baum Nordchinas. Es gibt in ganz China über 20 Varietäten der Ulme, die aber in Nordchina vermehrt auftritt. Zu den nördlichen Varietäten gehört die Japanische Ulme (chunyu, U. davidiana var. japonica). Sie erreicht eine Höhe von 30 Metern und einen Durchmesser von 1 m. Etwas kleiner ist die Mandschurische Ulme (lieye yu, U. laciniata). Weiter verbreitet ist auch die Sibirische Ulme (bai yu, U. pumila).

Das Splintholz der Nördlichen Ulme ist gelblich-braun. Das Kernholz tendiert zu kastanienbraun. Das Holz läßt sich nur schwer trocknen und reißt leicht. Das Holz ist von mittlerer Härte und hat, mit Ausnahme der Sibirischen Ulme, eine eher geringe Festigkeit. Jedoch ist das Holz alterungsbeständig und läßt sich leicht bearbeiten.
Die Chinesische Ulme (lang yu, U. parviflora) ist stärker in den südlichen tropischen Gegenden vertreten, wächst aber auch in Shaanxi, Shanxi, Hebei. Ihr Kernholz weist eine caffeebraune Färbung auf. Ihr Holz läßt sich ebenfalls schwer trocknen, verzieht sich leicht und reißt, ist aber wesentlich fester und härter als die anderen Varietäten. Die Verarbeitung dagegen ist schwieriger.

Südliche Ulme
Jumu
Zelkova Schneideriana

Südliche UlmeSüdliche UlmeBeliebtestes Weichholz für Ming-Möbel.
Die Südliche Ulme ist dichter und fester als die nördliche Variante Sie ist in ganz China vertreten, mit verstärkem Vorkommen in den Provinzen Jiangsu, Zhejiang, und Anhui, sowi in Korea und Japan, wo sie unter dem Namen Keyaki bekannt ist. Der Stamm erreicht eine Höhe von 30 Metern und einen Durchmesser von 1,5 Metern.
Das Splintholz ist etwas heller als das Kernholz, dessen Färbung zwischen geblich-braun und kaffee-braun variiert. Handwerke aus Jiangsu unterscheiden drei Typen: die gelbe ju (huangju), die rote ju (hongju), und die blutige ju (xueju). Man vermutet, dass unter anderem das Alter eine Rolle bei der unterschiedlichen Holzfärbung und -festigkeit spielt. Die blutige ju ist rötlich-braun kaffee-farben und hat fedrige Strukturen in der Oberfläche. Ihr Holz erzielt die höchsten Preise.

chinesischer Johannesbrotbaum
Huaimu
Chinese Locust
Robinia Pseudoacacia L.

chinesischer JohannesbrotbaumAuf den ersten Blick sieht das Holz des Johannesbrotbaums dem der Nördlichen Ulme sehr ähnlich. Ihr Holz ist jedoch wesentlich dichter und die Oberfläche hat eine grobere Textur.
Der Baum tritt in ganz China auf, doch das beste Holz stammt von Exemplaren aus Nordchina. Das Holz ist hart und sehr fest. Die Poren der jungen Bäume sind oft relativ groß. Die Maserung ist gerade, jedoch von unregelmäßiger Textur. Das Holz läßt sich leicht trocknen und verzieht sich nur wenig. Nach der Trocknung ist das Holz sehr beständig und gegen Feuchtigkeit und Insektenbefall resistent. Es läßt sich schwer schneiden und bearbeiten. Doch dann entwickelt es eine schimmernde Oberfläche.

Walnussbaum
Hetaomu
Juglans

WalnussbaumWalnussbaumSehr hartes Holz, Verwendung hauptsächlich in nordchinesischen Möbeln aus der Ming- und Qing-Dynastie. Bei asiatischen Sammlern sehr beliebt, daher selten.
Walnut was used for many examples of Qing period furniture sourced from the Shanxi region, which generally demonstrate refined workmanship; earlier pieces are extremely rare. Walnut is easily confused with nanmu, however, the surface of walnut tends to have more of an open-grained texture, and the color tends more towards golden-brown or reddish-brown when contrasted with the olive-brown tones of nanmu. Furthermore, their freshly worked surfaces each emit a distinctive fragrance.
China has several species of walnut that produce timber suited for high-quality furniture-making. True Walnut (J. regia L.) is generally cultivated in the north and northwestern regions, but also extends into the southwestern provinces. It is a deciduous tree reaching 20 meters in height that produces an edible nut that can be pressed into a high-quality vegetable oil. The light-colored sapwood is clearly distinguishable from the heartwood, the latter being reddish-brown too chestnut-brown in color, and sometimes even purplish, or with darker striated patterning. It dries very slowly, but is quite stable afterwards. It is of medium density (±.62 g/cm3) and has a relatively fine texture.
Because True Walnut is generally cultivated for its fruit rather than timber, Manchurian Walnut (J. mandsharica M.) is often used in its place. It is distributed throughout the northern to northeastern forests of China. It is somewhat lower in density (±.53 g/cm3) than True Walnut, and somewhat lighter in color. Wild Walnut (J. cathayensis) is distributed throughout central-to-eastern China, with noted concentrations in Yunnan province.

Palisander
hualimu

PalisanderPalisanderÄhnlich wie Huanghuali, aber preislich günstiger. Auch heute leicht zu finden. Haltbar.Rosewood is a deep, ruddy brown to purplish-brown colour, richly streaked and grained with black resinous layers. It takes a fine polish but because of its resinous nature is difficult to work. The heartwood attains large dimensions, but squared logs or planks are never seen because before the tree arrives at maturity, the heartwood begins to decay, making it faulty and hollow at the centre.

Once much in demand by cabinetmakers and piano makers, the wood is still used to fashion xylophone bars, but waning supplies restrict its use in contemporary furniture making.

Eiche
Zuomu, Gaolimu
Cyclobalanopsis (Qingfeng) und Quercus L. (Mali)

EicheIn antiken Möbeln selten, häufig verwendet für Hocker in Verbindung mit Bambus.
Although furniture made from oak is somewhat rare, the material has long been known as an excellent furniture-making wood. The variety known as gaoli was used in the Yongzheng (1723-1735) Imperial workshops, and earlier examples have also survived. Botanists have identified one hundred forty types of oaks widely distributed throughout China. These are divided into the evergreen Qingfeng group and the Mali group, the latter inclusive of both deciduous and evergreen varieties. Three species suited for furniture-making are noted below.

The Blue Japanese Oak (C. glauca) is widely distributed from Japan to India and commonly reaches heights of 20 meters with trunk diameters of one meter. The sapwood and heartwood are not clearly distinguished and range from grayish-yellow to grayish-brown with streaks of brown or red. The material is difficult to dry and not easy to work, however, it is extremely dense (±.90 g/cm3) and hard. Distinctive medullary rays appear in the tangential surface as short dark lines; in the radial surface, they appear as lustrous flecks woven through the longitudinal grain. The Sawtooth Oak (Q. acutissima) is also broadly distributed throughout China. With the exception of its reddish-brown heartwood, other characteristics are similar to the Blue Japanese Oak.

The somewhat less dense (.67-.75 g/cm3) Mongolian Oak (Q. mongolica) grows throughout north central and northeastern China, and is found from stretching westward through Japan , Korea, Mongolia, and Siberia. A similar species of growing in the Xing’anling region of Mongolia has been related to that commonly termed gaoli mu—Gaoli being a Chinese reference to ancient Korea.

Zypresse
Baimu (Cypress) Cupressus L.

ZypresseSehr glatte Oberfläche. Viele nordchinesische Möbel sind aus Zypressenholz gefertigt. Teurer als die südliche Varietät.
Of several cypress varieties found in modern China, Weeping Cypress (C. funebris) is the most highly regarded for its timber. It is heavily concentrated in Sichuan where it reaches heights of thirty meters and two meters in diameter. Smaller varieties of lesser quality include Bhutan Cypress, with concentrations in Gansu, Fujian Cypress, distributed throughout southern China to the Vietnamese border regions, and Himalayan Cypress (Xizang bai).
The heartwood of Weeping Cypress has a grassy yellowish-brown tonality, and is sometimes slightly streaked with red. With prolonged exposure, the color becomes deeper; the sapwood has paler tonalities. The material has good luster, is somewhat waxy or oily to the touch, and has a pungent fragrance. The grain is generally quite straight and evenly textured. The weight, density (±.58 g/cm3) and hardness are both medium to high. Drying is relatively slow, and requires attention to avoid warpage problems. Afterwards, it is highly resistant to rot and insect damage. The finely textured material is easy to work and polishes to a bright surface.

Nanmu
Nanmu
(Phoebe nees )

NanmuNanmu and nanmu burl (douban nan) were frequently mentioned as materials par excellence in Ming writings. The former was often used for cabinet construction; the latter, for decorative cabinet door and table top panels as well as smaller scholar’s objects.
Nanmu is a large, slow growing tree of the evergreen laurel family that develops with a long straight trunk ranging from 10-40 meters in height, and 50 to 100 cm in diameter. More than thirty varieties are found south of the Yangzi River with concentrations in the southwest; varieties are also indigenous to Hainan Island and Vietnam.
Zhennan (True Nanmu) from Sichuan and Guizhou, zinan (Purple Nanmu) from the southeastern and south-central regions, and hongmaoshan nan (Hongmao Mountain Nanmu) from Hainan Island are generally considered to produce the finest timber. These wood ranges in color from a warm olive-brown color to a reddish-brown color. Other species of nanmu with a coarse, loosely structured grain and lighter color are considered inferior.
Because it is highly resistant to decay, nanmu was frequently used for architectural woodworking and boat-building. The wood dries well with minimal warping or splitting after which it is dimensionally stable and of medium density (zhennan ±.61 g/cm3). Nanmu also emits a pungent fragrance when freshly worked. And because it polishes to a shimmering surface and has fine smooth texture, it was also prized as furniture-making wood. Shimmering characteristics also qualify that which is termed ‚jinsi‘ (golden-thread) nanmu. The burl of nanmu (douban nan) was also commonly featured in table and cabinet door.

Wurzelholz
Yingmu, Huamu

Wurzelholz WurzelholzAllgemeiner Ausdruck für Holz im Wurzelbereich. Wurzelholz ist selten und teuer.

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Buche

Buche

Birke

BirkeBirch has smooth, resinous, varicoloured or white bark, marked by horizontal pores (lenticels), which usually peels horizontally in thin sheets, especially on young trees. On older trunks the thick, deeply furrowed bark breaks into irregular plates.

It is one of the toughest American woods, with fine grain and pleasing light tone similar to maple. Birch can offer a variety of grain patterns (straight, curly, and wavy) and can be stained to resemble walnut or mahogany.

Birch trees of the family’s representative genus produce close-grained wood of uniform texture that is used in furniture, flooring, plywood, and veneers. It has a medium brown heartwood with a light cream colored sapwood.

Teak
Youmu

TeakExtrem stabil und haltbar. Da die Holzoberfläche keine schöne Maserung und Färbung hat, werden Teakmöbel in der Regel lackiert.

Fichte

FichteStraight and even grained with a medium to fine texture. Creamy white to pale brown color, heartwood indistinguishable from sapwood.

Light and soft with low strength, shock resistance, and decay resistance.#Works fairly easily with hand or machine tools. Glues, screws, nails, stains, paints, and varnishes well.

Used primarily for general construction, as well as boxes, crates, sash, doors, trim, plywood, and pulpwood.

Gelber Palisander
Huanghuali

Gelber PalisanderGelber PalisanderGelber PalisanderIm antiken China sehr geschätzt. Wurde einst in Gold aufgewogen. Sehr teuer, aber haltbar.

The Chinese term huanghuali literally means „yellow flowering pear“ wood. It is a member of the rosewood family and is botanically classified as Dalbergia odorifera. In premodern times the wood was know as huali or hualu. The modifier huang (yellowish-brown) was added in the early twentieth century to describe old huali wood whose surfaces had mellowed to a yellowish tone due to long exposure to light. The sweet fragrance of huali distinguishes it from the similar appearing but pungent-odored hongmu.
The finest huanghuali has a translucent shimmering surface with abstractly figured patterns that delight the eye–those appearing like ghost faces were highly prized. The color can range from reddish-brown to golden-yellow. Historical references point to Hainan Island as the main source of huali. However, variations in the color, figure, and density suggest similar species sourced throughout North Vietnam, Guangxi, Indochina and the other isles of the South China Sea.

Chinesischer Trompetenbaum

Chinesischer Trompetenbaum

Kampfer
Zhangmu
Cinnamomum camphora

KampferKampferSehr teures, duftendes Holz, das für kleinere Möbel, Kästchen etc. verwendet wird. Sehr beliebt bei den Damen der Oberschicht während der Ming- und Qing-Dynastie.

Because of its resistance to insects as well as its attractive grain patterns, camphor wood has long been used for making wardrobes and storage chests. Camphor is a large evergreen tree of the laurel family. It frequently grows to huge proportions approaching 50 meters in height with trunks reaching 5 meters in diameter. It is widely distributed south of the Yangzi River including Hainan Island, with the largest concentrations found in Taiwan, followed by Jiangxi and Fujian.
The pale sapwood of camphor is clearly distinguished from the heartwood, whose reddish-brown color is typically figured with darker reddish striations. The fragrance of camphor is intense after freshly cut, and its strong scent does not diminish with time. The interlocked grain pattern of camphor imparts a light and dark striped figure patterned with its open pores appearing as slanted parallel lines in the radial surface. It is light to medium in weight (.42-.54 g/cm3) and soft to medium in hardness. It is relatively stable but not particularly strong as a timber. The texture is even, and the surface can be polished to a rich luster.

Ebenholz

EbenholzEbenholzThe best ebony is very heavy, almost black, and derived from heartwood only. Because of its color, durability, hardness, and ability to take a high polish, ebony is used for cabinetwork and inlaying, piano keys, knife handles, and turned articles.

It was employed by the ancient kings of India for sceptres and images and, because of its supposed antagonism to poison, for drinking cups.Herodotus states that the Ethiopians every three years sent a tribute of 200 logs of ebony to Persia.

Its closeness of grain, great hardness, and fine hazel-brown colour, mottled and striped with black, render it valuable for veneering and furniture making.

Sandelbaum
Zitan

SandelbaumDas teuerste Holz. Aufgrund seiner Dichte versinkt es im Wasser. Nur wenige Stücke außerhalb der Museen erhalten.

Zitan is an extremely dense wood which sinks in water. It is a member of the rosewood family and is botanically classified in the Pterocarpus genus. The wood is blackish-purple to blackish-red in color, and its fibers are laden with deep red pigments which have been used for dye since ancient times. The fine texture of the wood grain is especially suitable for intricate carving. Early records indicate that zitan was sourced in tropical forests of southern China, throughout Indochina, and from Hainan Island. The tree grows quite slowly. Few pieces are known to be greater than one foot in width. While the tree has been considered to be extinct, new sources have been discovered in Indo-China as well as Southeast Asia over the recent years.

Tieli
Tielimu (Ironwood)

TieliTieliTieliSehr ähnlich wie Jichimu, aber weniger fest und schwer. Sehr beliebt bei Möbeln der Ming-Dynastie. Teuer, jedoch weit verbreitet.

Tieli wood is often confused with jichimu, yet lacks the latter’s contrasting colors. Tieli is predominantly grayish black, and its open grain has a coarse texture. It once grew abundant in Guangdong where its large timbers were used for bridges and house construction; on Hainan Island the natives used it for firewood. Nevertheless, in the more northern regions its was regarded as a rare hardwood and was noted for as a desirable wood for furniture-making in late Ming texts. Furniture made from tieli often has a thick quality and is frequently with little or no carved decoration.

„Hühnerflügel“
Jichimu (Ormosia)

"Hühnerflügel""Hühnerflügel""Hühnerflügel"Sehr beliebt bei chinesischen Kunsttischlern. Sehr verbreitet unter den Qing-Palastmöbeln und sehr teuer.

Jichimu, literally translated as ‚chicken-wing wood‘, describes a wood whose deep brown and gray patterns when cut tangentially resemble the patterns of bird feathers. The radial cut appears less dramatically with parallel lines of concentric layered tissue. It is botanically classified in the Ormosia genus of which as many as twenty-six species may grow in China. Jichimu is indigenous to Hainan Island, and the relatively large quantity of jichimu furniture found in Fujian province also corresponds to a source where seven different species are reportedly found today, and whose materials are virtually undifferentiated, yet bear varying leaf patterns. Hongdou (red bean), and xiangsi may also be other names for related species.

Mahagoni
Hongmu

MahagoniMahagoniGehört zu Palisanderhölzern. Sehr beständig. Verbreitet im Möbelbau der Quing-Dynastie. In den östlichen Landesteilen Chinas sehr beliebt.

No early references to hongmu have yet been discovered; however, the equivalent southern Chinese term ’suanzhi‘ appears during the middle Qing period—its literal meaning, ’sourwood‘ describes the pungent odor emitted when it is worked. Most of the dark heavily carved Qing period furniture is made from hongmu. Also called ‚blackwood‘, it can resemble zitan but lacks the latter’s deep lustrous surface and its ‚crab-claw markings‘. There is also a light variety which can be difficult to distinguish from huanghuali.

Kiefer
Song Mu

KieferBreite Verwendung bei billigeren südchinesischen Möbeln, hauptsächlich bei Küchenschränken.

Zhazhen

ZhazhenCommonly termed zhazhen or zhajing, this furniture-making wood is associated with the mulberry species. Furniture made from zhazhen wood is commonly found in the Subei region of Jiangsu. The wood is dark reddish-brown and layered with coffee-colored tissue; it has a fine grain pattern with medullary rays visible in the radial cut. The material is of medium density, but has low resistance to decay.

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Birnbaum

BirnbaumFindet fast nur in Schränken Verwendung. Sehr hart und feinporig.

Bambus

Bambus

Zeder

ZederSehr haltbares Holz, das im Schiffsbau Verwendung fand. Beliebt aufgrund seiner Schönheit und seinem natürlichen Schutz vor Insektenbefall. Ideales Holz für Möbelbau. Zedernholz ist teuer.

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